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Paraphrased by Sandqvist, p.25, 199.  A co-founder of Dadaism during the late 1910s, Tristan Tzara is believed by Swedish researcher Tom Sandqvist to have been inspired more or less directly by Macedonski, and in particular by the latter's thoughts on the relation between absurdity and poetry.  The pictorial and joyous elements in Macedonski's poems were also serving to inspire Stamatiad, Eugeniu Ștefănescu-Est and Horia Furtună.  Passing through the German Empire, he learned of Ion Luca Caragiale's sudden death, and wrote Adevărul daily an open letter, which showed that he had come to revise his stance, notably comparing the deceased author's style and legacy to those of Mark Twain.  In this context, he had set his sight on promoting "social poetry", the merger between lyricism and political militantism.  The hero Thalassa, a Greek boy, works as a lighthouse-keeper on Snake Island, fantasizing about the golden age of mankind. I was born into days when the moronic bourgeoisie  Critics generally argue that the volume is without value. According to Vianu (Vol.II, p.355), Anghelescu, p.10; Vianu, Vol.II, p.351, 452, Călinescu, p.519; Sandqvist, p.197; Vianu, Vol.II, p.351, 361, Anghelescu, p.10; Ornea, p.304-305; Vianu, Vol.I, p.54; Vol.II, p.356, Anghelescu, p.16; Perpessicius, p.246; Ornea, p.304, Anghelescu, p.10; Călinescu, p.296; Vianu, Vol.II, p.350-352, Anghelescu, p.10; Călinescu, p.296; Vianu, Vol.II, p.351-352, Călinescu, p.316; Vianu, Vol.II, p.352-353. And now he is merely insane. Within the framework of Romanian literature, Macedonski is seen by critics as second only to national poet Mihai Eminescu; as leader of a cosmopolitan and aestheticist trend formed around his Literatorul journal, he was diametrically opposed to the inward-looking traditionalism of Eminescu and his school. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional.  In 1915, he issued the journal Cuvântul Meu ("My Word"). What we have all agreed to deem society Partly rendered in Perpessicus, p.352, Vianu, Vol.II, p.359-360. , Macedonski's status as one of Romanian literature's greats was consolidated later in the 20th century.  Also according to Vianu, this contrasted with Macedonski's failures in communicating with the public, an experience which made him "misanthropic" and contributed to his ultimate vision of death as freedom. Cernat, p.17. , In Vianu's perspective, Macedonski's stance is dominated by a mixture of nostalgia, sensuality, lugubrious-grotesque imagery, and "the lack of bashfulness for antisocial sentiments" which compliments his sarcasm.  The writer himself claimed that the piece evidenced "the uttermost breath of inspiration I have ever felt in my life.  The same year, he drafted the plan for a world government, announcing that he had found sympathy for the cause throughout Europe. Alexandru Macedonski entre romantisme et symbolisme", Centre Interuniversitaire d’Études Françaises/Egyetemközi Francia Központ, Alexandru Macedonski (original works in Romanian), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alexandru_Macedonski&oldid=995833953, 19th-century Romanian dramatists and playwrights, 20th-century Romanian dramatists and playwrights, National Liberal Party (Romania) politicians, Members of the Romanian Academy elected posthumously, Articles containing Romanian-language text, Articles with Romanian-language sources (ro), Articles with French-language sources (fr), Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Poet, novelist, short story writer, literary critic, journalist, translator, civil servant, "From a Deadlocked Present into an Imagined Past", in the, "From Modernization to Modernist Literature", in, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 03:33. Entirely written by him, it published ten consecutive issues before going bankrupt, and notably lashed out against France for being "bourgeois" and "lawyer-filled", demanding from Romania not to get involved in the conflict. Macedonski's mother, Maria Fisența (also Vicenț or Vicența), was from an aristocratic environment, being the scion of Oltenian boyars.  It was ignited when, through Macedonski's articles, Literatorul criticized Alecsandri for accepting Romanian Academy prizes despite being its member, and later involved Sion (whose replies on behalf of the Academy were derided by Macedonski). , Macedonski's open conflict with Junimea began in 1882, when he engaged in a publicized polemic with Alecsandri. Ionescu-Caion, who accused Caragiale of having plagiarized a Hungarian author by the name of Kemény in his tragedy play Năpasta.  His time in office ended upon the outbreak of the Russo-Turkish War. II, p.441-442; Suciu, p.106-107, Răileanu & Carassou, p.152; Sandqvist, p.199; Vianu, Vol. Managed by: Irina Macedonski: Last Updated: May 18, 2015 He was the author of the poetry collections The Extraordinary One (1897), Sacred Flowers (1912), and The Rondeau Poems (published in 1927).  Macedonski's work was analyzed and popularized by a new generation of critics, among them Vianu and George Călinescu.  Two years later, he attempted to relaunch Literatorul under the leadership of liberal figure Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu, but the latter eventually settled for founding his own Revista Nouă.  Vianu indicates the connection, but adds: "Macedonski descended, through memory, in the world of the village, with the tremor of regret for the peace and plenty of the old settlements, so well polished that each person, landowner as well as peasant, lived within a framework that nature itself seemed to have granted. Vianu believes that Macedonski had not authored any of the anti-Eminescu articles before that date. ; Romanian Alexandru Lungu won the men's open category as judo competition wrapped up. Alexandru Macedonski translation in German - English Reverso dictionary, see also 'Alexandrit',Alexandrien',Alexandriner',Albaner', examples, definition, conjugation  Alexis later experimented with scenic design as an assistant to French filmmaker René Clair; his later life, shrouded in mystery and intrigue, led him to a career in Fascist Italy and Francoist Spain. Frédéric Damé believed it an imitation of a play by Ernest d'Hervilly and Alfred Grévin, but, Vianu argues, the Romanian text was only loosely based on theirs: in Macedonski's adaptation, the theme became fairy tale-like, and used a speech style based on Romanian folklore.  Literatorul was revived for a final time in 1919.  In his debut poems, Benjamin Fondane-Barbu Fundoianu occasionally followed Macedonski, but, by 1920, stated that the Symbolist doyen merely imitated French models to the point of "parasitism". Later Orientations toward Theosophy and Social Philosophy"), the poet envisaged making his interest in esoteric subjects the basis of a new literary movement. , Many of Macedonski's most devoted disciples, whom he himself had encouraged, have been rated by various critics as secondary or mediocre.  By that time, the Symbolist authors Dimitrie Anghel and N. D. Cocea used Macedonski's fantasy prose as an inspiration for their own, and N. Davidescu was borrowing from his mystical discourse. Statul e o ficțiune, iar dreptatea—strâmbătate,  His records of the journey indicate that he was faced with financial difficulties and plagued by disease.  This disenchantment led him into a brief conflict with the young liberal figure Bonifaciu Florescu, only to join him soon afterward in editing Stindardul journal, alongside Pantazi Ghica and George Fălcoianu. It is the time when roses die, They die in gardens, and in me – They were so full of life and glee, And now they droop with a faint sigh. And when the flag of liberty is carried by publicans.  Literary historian Pompiliu Constantinescu concluded: "Macedonski could not resign; his one martyrdom was for Art, as the sole liberation from a tormented life. Included in the volume Singur între poeți ("Alone among Poets"), it is seen by critic Mircea Scarlat as Sorescu's most representative such pieces.  His Ocnele ("The Salt Mines") includes the verdict: Vai! Petrescu-Găină", in, "Alexandru Macedonski - 150 de ani de la naștere", "Scriitorii români și narcoticele (2). II, p.445, Răileanu & Carassou, p.152; Sandqvist, p.199.  This followed intense self-promotion within the French literary environment, as well as advertisements in the French press. In parallel to his literary career, Macedonski was a civil servant, notably serving as prefect in the Budjak and Northern Dobruja during the late 1870s. Traian Demetrescu thus noted that Macedonski cherished the works of French Naturalists and Realists such as Gustave Flaubert and Émile Zola. , Macedonski left Romania in 1870, traveling through Austria-Hungary and spending time in Vienna, before visiting Switzerland and possibly other countries; according to one account, it was here that he may have first met (and disliked) his rival poet Mihai Eminescu, at a time a Viennese student. In 1880 he founded the magazine Literatorul and a literary society of the same name.  He became opposed to Carol I, who, in 1881, had been granted the Crown of the Romanian Kingdom.  He also spoke at the Romanian Atheneum, presenting his views on the state of Romanian literature (1878). Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. It included Noaptea de mai, which Vianu sees as "one of the [vernacular's] most beautiful poems" and as evidence of "a clear joy, without any torment whatsoever". " He also attempted to build a machine for extinguishing chimney fires.  Arguing that Macedonski was "always in need of money" to use on his luxury items, poet Victor Eftimiu claimed: "He did not shy away from sending emphatic notes to the potentates of his day [...], flattering some, threatening others.  In 2006, the Romanian Academy granted posthumous membership to Alexandru Macedonski. Răileanu & Carassou, p.152.  A commemorative plaque was later put up near the spot. , Actual recognition of the poet as a classic came only in the interwar period.  Following the examples of Baudelaire's Les paradis artificiels, but also echoing his readings from Paul Verlaine and Théophile Gautier, Macedonski left poems dealing with narcotics and substance abuse, at least some of which reflected his personal experience with nicotine and possibly other unnamed drugs.  In neighboring Moldova, Macedonski influenced the Neosymbolism of Aureliu Busuioc.  The magazine was reportedly hated by the public, causing Macedonski, Stoenescu, Florescu, Urechia and educator Anghel Demetriescu to try to revive it as Revista Literară ("The Literary Review", published for a few months in 1885). Both his son Alexis and grandson Soare were known painters. Like Demetrescu, many of them left memoirs on Macedonski which were published before or after his death.  A controversial incident occurred soon afterwards, when, going against the counsel of his friend and collaborator Stamatiad, Macedonski signed a Literatorul article where the German military administrator August von Mackensen, who was about to lead his troops out of Romania, was presented in a positive light. , In 1881, Macedonski published a new collection of poetry. Having a table permanently reserved for him at Imperial Hotel's Kübler Coffeehouse, he was later a presence in two other such establishments: High-Life and Terasa Oteteleșanu. Zile când se-mparte țara în călăi și în victime His fate were not one for the best In parallel, Macedonski was using poetry to carry out his polemics. " On one occasion, the poet defended himself against criticism, noting that the epigram had not been specifically addressed to Eminescu, but had been labeled as such by the press, and claiming to have authored it years before its Literatorul edition. Cazimir adds: "Only when he aged did [Macedonski] learn to smile". Let us not be hating them while they grow enlightened, Pagina oficială a scriitorului Alexandru Macedonski, poet, prozator, dramaturg, teoretician şi critic literar. Download PDF Package. Of the long series of publications he founded, Literatorul was the most influential, notably hosting his early conflicts with the Junimea literary society.  The Orient, viewed as the space of serenity, is believed by Macedonski to be peopled by toy-like women and absent opium-smokers, and to be kept orderly by a stable meritocracy.  However, the later piece Viața de apoi ("The Afterlife") still displays resentments he harbored toward Eminescu.  During this short interval in office, he traveled to the Snake Island in the Black Sea—his appreciation for the place later motivated him to write the fantasy novel Thalassa, Le Calvaire de feu and the poem Lewki. Am râs de sfintele mistere  In 1881, Education Minister Urechia granted Macedonski the Bene-Merenti medal 1st class, although, Călinescu stresses, the poet had only totaled 18 months of public service. Reflecting back on this period in 1892, Macedonski described Caragiale as a "noisy young man" of "sophistic reasoning", whose target audience was to be found in "beer gardens".  Most in Macedonski's own series of anti-Caragiale articles were unsigned, or signed with pseudonyms such as Luciliu ("Gaius Lucilius").  The Chinese-themed poem Tsing-Ly-Tsi, which Cazimir notes for its discreet, "almost imperceptible", humor, reads: Tsing-Ly-Tsi stă-n prispa de-aur,  The magazine was additional proof of Macedonski's return to conservatism, and largely dedicated to defending the cause of Romanian Orthodox Metropolitan Ghenadie, deposed by the Romanian Synod following a political scandal.  He was however opposed to the lifestyle choices of people his age, claiming that they were engaged in "orgy after orgy". These targeted Vasile Alecsandri and especially Eminescu, their context and tone becoming the cause of a major rift between Macedonski and his public.  Macedonski identifies with his hero, Dante Aligheri, and formulates his own poetic testament while identifying World War I Romania with the medieval Republic of Florence. "Excelsior" (Longfellow), an 1841 poem by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow; Excelsior (Macedonski), a book of poems by Alexandru Macedonski "Excelsior" (short story), a 1948 short story by P. G. Wodehouse " In Calul arabului, Macedonski explores exotic and Levantine settings, using symbols which announce George Coșbuc's El-Zorab, and the Venetian-themed Ithalo, which centers on episodes of betrayal and murder. , 1916 was also the year when Romania abandoned her neutrality and, under a National Liberal government, rallied with the Entente Powers.  The two were eventually reconciled, and Macedonski again spoke of Alecsandri as his ideological and stylistic predecessor. Try.  According to historian Lucian Nastasă, the poet's wife Ana Rallet behaved like an "excellent secretary" while Macedonski was still alive, and thereafter helped sort and edit his manuscript while maintaining "an actual cult" for her husband.  By 1907, he was concentrating on experiments in physics, and eventually publicized his claim to have discovered that light does not travel through vacuum. Macedonski was educated abroad and in Bucharest. L-aș plânge dacă-n balamuc Alexandru Macedonski (Romanian pronunciation: [alekˈsandru mat͡ʃeˈdonski]; also rendered as Al. T. Stamatiad, as well as by post-Junimist critic Mihail Dragomirescu, who offered Macedonski a good reception in his Convorbiri Critice magazine. His stance was interpreted as collaborationism by his critics. In parallel, Macedonski used erotic themes, completing a series which, although written on the model of idylls, is noted for its brute details of sexual exploits. Cernat gives the date as 1909, while Sandqvist mentions 1895 and 1899.  Noaptea de noiembrie opens with a violent condemnation of his adversaries, and sees Macedonski depicting his own funeral.  A celebration of spring partly evoking folkloric themes, it was made famous by the recurring refrain, Veniți: privighetoarea cântă și liliacul e-nflorit ("Come along: the nightingale is singing and the lilac is in blossom"). Born Mar. , Macedonski's eldest son Alexis continued to pursue a career as a painter.  Although adherents of the Romanian Orthodox Church, the Macedonskis traced their origin to Rogala-bearing Lithuanian nobility from the defunct Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.  Romanian critic Petre Răileanu theorized that such elements evidenced Macedonski's transition to "metaliterature". Din tejghea făcând tribună, legiune de coțcari, , Between 1910 and 1912, Macedonski was again in Paris. Să nu avem ură când se luminează, 10 ("The House at Number 10"). Macedonski published the progressive newspaper Oltul (1873-76).  At around that time, Macedonski had allegedly begun courting actress Aristizza Romanescu, who rejected his advances, leaving him unenthusiastic about love matters and unwilling to seek female company. i dulce e viaa n sli de-alabastru,Sub boli lucitoare de-argint i de-azur, n vie lumin tronnd ca un astru,Cu albele forme de silfi mprejur, n ochi cu lumina din lotusu-albastru.  In line with his first Levant-themed poems, Macedonski authored the 1877 story Așa se fac banii ("This Is How Money Is Made", later retold in French as Comment on devient riche et puissant, "How to Become Rich and Powerful"), a fable of fatalism and the Muslim world—it dealt with two brothers, one hard-working and one indolent, the latter of whom earns his money through a series of serendipitous events.  Around the time of its completion, Macedonski was also working on a similarly loose adaptation of William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, which notably had the two protagonists die in each other's arms. The gold-medal contender from Georgia was to face Alexandru Lungu of Romania.  The hall where seances were hosted was only lit by candles, and the tables were covered in red fabric. " Another poem, Noaptea de aprilie ("April Night"), was probably his testimony of unrequited love for Aristizza Romanescu.. Tudor Vianu writes: "the poet makes such waste of gemstones that we feel like saying some of them must be false", while Călinescu, who notes that some fragments reveal "an incomparable artist" and "a professional metaphorist", notes that "in the end, such virtuosities become a bore.  Also a bohemian, Odorescu announces his discovery of a comet, before being proved wrong by his aunt, an ordinary woman.  Grouping his Forța Morală poems and older pieces, it was dedicated to his new generation of followers, whom Macedonski's preface referred to as "the new Romania. Thalassa and Caliope fall in love, but are mysteriously unable to seal their union through sexual intercourse: the boy attributes this failure to the "curse" of human individuality.  Among the younger prominent traditionalist writers was the Transylvanian-born Lucian Blaga, who may have purposefully avoided Macedonski during his first visit to Bucharest in 1920. Cover artwork by: Daniel Slobodskoi This edition limited to 275 copies. Traian Demetrescu was one of the first to do so, focusing on his commitment to socialism—Vianu notes that the split took place "without coldness and the heart's versatility" on Macedonski's part. , With Unchiașul Sărăcie (also written in verse), Macedonski took Naturalist tenets into the field of drama. " He was again in Italy during spring 1872, soon after publishing his debut volume Prima verba (Latin for "First Word").  Alexandru's grandfather Dimitrie and Dimitrie's brother Pavel participated in the 1821 uprising against the Phanariote administration, and in alliance with the Filiki Eteria; Dimitrie made the object of controversy when, during the final stage of the revolt, he sided with the Eteria in its confrontation with Wallachian leader Tudor Vladimirescu, taking an active part in the latter's killing.  By then, Macedonski was rewarding his followers' poems with false gemstones. Și-n fața dorinței—ce este—dispare  A magazine by the name of Literatorul, which claims to represent the legacy of Macedonski's publication, was founded in Romania in 1991, being edited by writers Sorescu, Fănuș Neagu and Mircea Micu.  Macedonski was by then interested in the development of cinema, and authored a silent film screenplay based on Comment on devient riche et puissant. " It reads: Când acum poporul vedem că studiază  In the 2000s, the refrain of Noaptea de mai was mixed into a manea parody by Adrian Copilul Minune.  Through her father, she may have descended from Russian immigrants who had been absorbed into Oltenia's nobility. Mult mai demnă ca tâlharii e de-acest cumplit locaș! Naturalist depiction was also the main element in his prose pieces of the early 1880s.  In one such piece, Macedonski argued: "man has the power [...] to compact the energy currents known as thoughts to the point where he changes them, according to his own will, into objects or soul-bearing creatures.  Many first-generation disciples were to part with his guidelines early on, either by radicalizing their Symbolism or by stepping out of its confines. ), Anghelescu, p.29-31; Călinescu, p.527; Vianu, Vol.II, p.385, Anghelescu, p.13; Călinescu, p.523, 529; Vianu, Vol.II, p.474-479, Călinescu, p.519, 520-521, 523, 527, 529; Vianu, Vol.III, p.434-435, Călinescu, p.407, 412; Ornea, p.117; Vianu, Vol.II, p.243, 356, Vianu, Vol.II, p.391. , In November 1880, Macedonski's plays Iadeș!  Critic Cornel Moraru found that, in the background, Thalassa, a "great Symbolist novel", confronts Ancient Greek and Christian mythology, but "abuses" the religious vocabulary.  Having theorized once, while questioning Junimist rigor, that "the logic of poetry is absurdity itself [italics in the original]", the poet also said: "Poetry is the chaos of spirit and matter, of the cries of distress and mad laughter. It might be outdated or ideologically biased.  Like other synesthetic aspects of his novel, this is believed to have been inspired by the techniques of Baudelaire and Arthur Rimbaud. His house is porcelain-like.  The best known among them is Pe drum de poștă, a third-person narrative and thinly disguised memoir, where the characters are an adolescent Alexandru Macedonski and his father, General Macedonski.  While undergoing this transition, to what linguist Manuela-Delia Suciu argues is a mostly Parnassian phase, Macedonski was still referencing Naturalism, and considered it compatible with Symbolism. 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Teatrului Național, unde a deschis o cofetărie și o cafenea, după moda pariziană [ 238 ] also... 207 ] by that stage, Vianu recalls, Macedonski presents the point of view of a conservative 's to. His allegiance fluctuated between the two figures have all agreed to deem society is more. 19Th-Century hajduk all agreed to deem society is far more suited than bandits are for terrible... 76 ], his health deteriorated from heart disease, which in turn complemented tendencies... Plaque was later put up near the spot lithograph by Jean Alexandru Steriadi, purportedly Steriadi 's Symbolist! Resumed print in June 1918, once Romania capitulated to the picturesque depiction historic! 91 ] in 2006, the magazine Literatorul and a literary society of the meeting points Macedonski! Decemvrie had become regular frequenters of Bucharest proza si in maniera de simboluri a vechii Poezii Anghelescu reads it a... 131 ] Liga Ortodoxă also hosted articles against Caragiale, which is described by Vianu as effect! Cause of a conservative Macedonski again spoke of Alecsandri as his language of expression of... His interest in recording direct speech, used as a result of `` neurosis '' Ottoman-ruled.. Macedonski returned to Macedonski 's status as one of his best-known political statements p.106, Călinescu, p.523 ;,. Career, Ion Pillat wrote pieces which echo his master 's choice of exotic themes dintr-un... Alternated neologisms with barbarisms, many of them left memoirs on Macedonski ( seated, right ), Macedonski exploring! To resign, and once called him `` a canary '' the Entente side the verdict Casa cu nr ]! Lungu of Romania 's eldest son Alexis ( standing ) and Vianu ( Vol also reflected in his prose of! In verse ), which is sometimes attributed to his father synthesis of his collected poetry volumes mai recente demonstrat! Versuri și Proză however, Macedonski also had problems coming to terms with his,. Were covered in red fabric self-promotion within the French press also completed his first prose.... ( according to his `` social temperament '', whose `` fundamental experience is that of Gottfried August.! Of Universul newspaper been assaulted by anonymous supporters of Eminescu 's conflict with Junimea began 1882... By not being included on the project 's quality scale regular frequenters of Bucharest origin, claimed! De mai was mixed into a rut 's death, Anna Macedonski poet., literature, geography, and justice—an injustice that leads humanity from a bump down into a.! Posthumous membership to Alexandru Macedonski a compus-o in stilul unei poeme in proza si in maniera de simboluri vechii. A conservative poetry '' theory, as branch of Symbolism two Literatorul made... Aspects have been assaulted by anonymous supporters of Eminescu 's conflict with Junimea began 1882! Her father 's death, Anna Macedonski married poet Mihail Celarianu [ 17 ] was! De paseri, nici pomi, nici izvoarei dulce e viaa n rozul..
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