. Encyclopedia of Religion. Austin, Tex., 1976. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. "The Rise of Female Healers in the Middle Atlas, Morocco." Many of these records provide an exquisitely detailed account of the medical systems and accompanying ideologies that gained hegemony in this region through the millennia, as well as the cultural and socioeconomic milieus in which they existed (Gran, 1979; Inhorn Millar and Lane, 1988). Wearing a hand of Fatima as a piece of jewelry is thought to prevent human harm and illness. About 20% of the world's Muslims live in the Middle East. First, children—and particularly more highly valued male children—are believed to be one of the main targets of the evil eye, with their sickness, injury, and even death constituting possible outcomes. So are attempts by the Saudis to reheat divisions between Sunnis and Shia. While each of the many countries commonly considered part of the "Middle East" is unique, there is a binding ethnic fabric that should be considered. People may feel worried, low, worthless, and frequently sad. In this belief, anything that provokes jealousy in another gives the jealous person the power to cause illness or misfortune for the lucky person or family. Religion in the cultures of the Middle East. In addition, the activities of the pilgrimage itself—including the respite from everyday routine; the exhilaration of travel to a spiritually "magnetic" center (Preston, 1992); the cathartic effects of unburdening one's "private heartaches" (Tapper, 1990) on a nonjudgmental but responsive holy one who can be requested to act on one's behalf; the ability to be part of a sympathetic, experienced community of female sufferers who often congregate at these shrines (Mernissi, 1977); and the ministrations of the living, barakah -bestowing shaikh s who often attend to these shrines and who pray and write healing amulets for suffering pilgrims—are part and parcel of the healing process. Technologies such as coronary bypass surgery, organ transplantation services, and the latest forms of in vitro fertilization are widely available in urban centers. Healing and Medicine: Popular Healing Practices in Middle Eastern Cultures There is a considerable intra-cultural diversity among Filipino Americans with regards to health beliefs and health practices. They have had an enduring influence on Western civilization. For example, many countries in the Middle East still have arranged marriages and require that women cover their head and/or face to … Upper Saddle River, N.J., 1998. Medical professionals need a more informed understanding and consideration of the rich and diverse array of beliefs, expectations, preferences, and behavioral makeup of the social cultures of these patients to ensure that they are providing the best and most comprehensive care possible. Gender, Sickness, and Healing in Rural Egypt: Ethnography in Historical Context. Cautery may be used directly on the site of a patient's bodily complaint (e.g., lower back, arm or leg joints), or it may be used on other sites of the body to "tighten" relaxed nerves and muscles. That population is at an increased risk for several diseases and faces many barriers to accessing the American health care system. How This Impacts Care •Patient brings 1 or 2 additional people to visit who listen carefully for patient and may answer for patient. Doumato, Eleanor Abdella. The "evil of an envier" is mentioned directly in the Qurʾān, but the belief in evil eye predates Islam, appearing in both the Bible and in Sumerian texts as early as five thousand years ago (Dundes, 1992). Misconception of Middle Eastern Culture and Religion | Melika Rahmani | TEDxJMU Melika is a student at James Madison University. Section 2 addresses Islamic beliefs affecting healthcare. The forms that the fertility rites assumed varied from region to region, depending on climate and geography. Gellner, Ernest. 84 0 obj Middle East's Muslim population accounts for roughly 20% of the world's Muslim population. Crapanzano, Vincent. Inhorn Millar, Marcia C., and Sandra D. Lane. "Spiritual Magnetism: An Organizing Principle for the Study of Pilgrimage." The Middle Eastern diet falls under the category of a Mediterranean diet, which incorporates the foods and cuisines of the countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Thus middle- to upper-class Middle Eastern patients can avail themselves of medical diagnosis and treatment services in cities such as Jiddah, Saudi Arabia; Cairo, Egypt; Tehran, Iran; or Beirut, Lebanon, with expectations that the services rendered will be on a par with those offered in the best medical centers in the West. Health Disparities: The Case of Arab/Middle Eastern Immigrants in The United States. quently, the number who seek health care has also been increasing. In the early twenty-first century, amulets are widely used throughout the Middle East for three primary purposes: (1) to prevent the deleterious envy (evil eye) that can destroy objects and lead to illness; (2) to nullify acts of sorcery, which are also thought to cause illnesses such as impotence; and (3) on a more mundane level, to treat physical complaints, ranging from headaches to fever. Pillsbury, Barbara L. K. Traditional Health Care in the Near East. Although some contemporary Islamists are calling for a return to prophetic-Islamic medicine—with its promotion of dietary and lifestyle changes as well as faith healing through prayer, writing of religious amulets, laying on of hands, and recitation of holy verses from the Qurʾān (Adib, 2004)—it is important to remember that these are among the very practices that have been employed for centuries in popular healing rituals throughout the region. Encyclopedia.com. By the sixteenth-century, cults of popular Islamic mystics, known as Ṣūfīs or marabouts, began to proliferate in the countries of North Africa. Middle Eastern Christians are relatively wealthy, well educated, and politically moderate, as they have today an active role in various social, economical, sporting and political aspects in the Middle East. Bearing this medical modernity in mind, it is also important to acknowledge that popular healing traditions still exist in the Middle East, providing a less expensive alternative to biomedicine among rural populations and the urban underclass, as well as a spiritual connection to Islam and to earlier literate medical traditions in the region. "Perceiving Systems: Cold or Spirits? In 1998, the World Mental Health Survey Initiative was conducted by the World Federation for Mental Health.The (WFMH) was originally created in 1948 and works in concert with the World Health Organization (WHO). Eickelman, Dale F., and James Piscatori, eds. The practices of cupping and cautery were the most common healing methods employed in pre-Islamic times, according to medical historians (Ullman, 1978). Boulder, Colo., 1993. 1. Health beliefs and views of death predate European immigration and vary by tribe. Research indicates that close to 94% of Middle East's population belonged to Islam. Several poems inspired by the ancient legends from the Middle East. "Women, Sufism, and Decision-Making in Moroccan Islam." However, with the coming of Islam to the region, the prophet Muḥammad is said to have forbidden cauterization as a pre-Islamic, Bedouin practice of heathen origin (Doumato, 2000; Ullman, 1978). Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. "Ethno-Ophthalmology in the Egyptian Delta: An Historical Systems Approach to Ethnomedicine in the Middle East." Family and friends should not be used to provide interpretation services (except on request by the patient/consumer). It is these popular healing traditions and their connection to Islam that represent the substance of this brief essay. About 20% of the world's Muslims live in the Middle East. 3d ed. The initial portion of the document provides guidelines for health services to Muslims. London, 1969. Furthermore beliefs in harmful spirits and spirit possession are found across the Middle Eastern region, from Morocco to Iran. To accurately evaluate and understand the mental health issues of the Middle East, one must take into account the geographic, historical, cultural, and social influences of that part of the world. In Sacred Journeys: The Anthropology of Pilgrimage, edited by Alan Morinis, pp. ••• Westport, Conn., 1992. Social Science and Medicine 39 (1994b): 487–505. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Boulder, Colo., 1993. Culture Name Health care organizations must make available easily understood Women who are reproductively troubled and who may be blamed for the evil eye seek refuge in the zār cult in some parts of the Middle East. Healing, both new and old, is clearly a rich area for future scholarship, as suggested by the brief examples provided in this essay. Identifying them can be time consuming for the busy clinician. Family is extremely important to Middle Eastern cultures and usually extends to aunts, uncles, cousins, etc. Instructions. When Mid-Easterners visit healthcare professionals for pain relief, they expect to be treated right away and given medications at the same visit. Neither domain has been well studied by social scientists or historians. ... cultural health beliefs and practices and preferred language. RELIGION: Culture Awareness in Maternity: Middle Eastern Cultures Conception Postpartum Postpartum BREASTFEEDING Clinical Implications SOURCES: Many Middle Eastern Countries practice Islam Researching Middle Eastern practices is actually a look into Islamic Religion and Culture Identification. For the masses of rural and urban poor people who visit these sites as pilgrims—given that healing pilgrimage of this sort tends to be a class-based phenomenon in the Middle East these dead saints are believed to radiate barakah, a living form of beneficial power associated with divine blessing, grace, or holiness that is transferable to their descendants, followers, and visitors (Biegman, 1990). View Academics in Middle Eastern Health Care Beliefs on Academia.edu. Social Science and Medicine 15B (1981): 219–235. The majority of people that make up the Middle East are we Arab Muslims who together share certain values, traditions, and old beliefs that are remarkably different from those of Westerners. The Middle Eastern Health Inequality Paradox and the Gender Obesity Gap (2018) ALNohair, S. (2014) Obesity in Gulf Countries. Middle Eastern religion, any of the religious beliefs, attitudes, and practices developed in the ancient Middle East (extending geographically from Iran to Egypt and from Anatolia and the Aegean Sea to the Arabian Peninsula and temporally from about 3000 to 330 bc, when Alexander the Great conquered much of the area). Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Social Science and Medicine 13B (1979): 339–348. After the Prophet's death, Muslim believers, such as Al-Suyūṭī in his Tibb-ul-Nabbi (Medicine of the Prophet), collected everything the Prophet was reported to have said about hygiene, alcohol consumption, circumcision, menstruation, breast-feeding, sanitation, and various diseases and then institutionalized these sayings into a form of medical practice (Gran, 1979). Middle Eastern culture is very broad since it not only includes countries in Asia but also in Africa. Berkeley, Calif., 1990. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 82 (1988): 277–280. Despite this prophetic denouncement, both cupping and cautery are found widely throughout the Middle Eastern region in the early twenty-first century. Middle Eastern Christians are relatively wealthy, well educated, and politically moderate, as they have today an active role in various social, economical, sporting and political aspects in the Middle East. Thus, in many settings in the Middle East, belief in the evil eye serves as a primary explanatory model for infant and child morbidity and mortality (Harfouche, 1992). It arose as a formal discipline in the wake o…, PRONUNCIATION: soo-duh-NEEZ They do so either as "possessed" individuals, who use their own spirits to diagnose and treat other spirit-troubled individuals, or as skillful agents of spirit invocation, who make the wishes of others' spirits known, then appease those spirits through communal zār rituals or private rituals of animal sacrifice and the provision of gifts to the spirit world. Despite widespread Western misconceptions about technological "backwardness" in the Middle Eastern world, the Middle East is home to thoroughly modern, high-tech, Western-based biomedicine, often delivered in gleaming private hospitals and medical centers throughout the region. Boddy, Janice. Even though most of the inhabitants are Muslims, some practice Christianity. Given the incredible diversity of the region, the Middle East is home to a rich armamentarium of popular healing practices delivered by multiple types of healers. In other words, religion can be a protective factor against suicide. Islamic religious leaders and groups are increasingly spreading the word that popular healing practices, especially those that involve saint worship, are a form of shirk, or polytheism, which is ḥaram, or forbidden in the religion. Early, Evelyn A. Baladi Women of Cairo: Playing with an Egg and a Stone. Preston, James J. Islamic Medicine. . Signs 3 (1977): 101–112. "Ziyaret : Gender, Movement, and Exchange in a Turkish Community." Indeed zār has been described by some scholars as a proto-feminist challenge to women's objectification and subordination (Boddy, 1989), a way to challenge authority and compensate for exclusion from formal religion in the Muslim world (Doumato, 2000). Belief in the power of the envious glance to cause harm is widespread throughout the Middle East, a region considered one of the "core areas" where evil eye beliefs are found (although they are also found in other parts of the world) (Dundes, 1992; Maloney, 1976). When the vessel is placed over the flame, it extinguishes the flame and causes vapor to rise. 31–46. 4. Through the zār they find a social etiology for their suffering (i.e., harmful spirits), a sense of community solidarity with other similarly afflicted women, and a way to press for demands (e.g., new clothing, jewelry, feasts) through the idiom of spirit possession and the invocation of these spirits through joyful music and dance. Safa, Kaveh. Inhorn, Marcia C. Quest for Conception: Gender, Infertility, and Egyptian Medical Traditions. Berkeley, Calif., 1973. Reviews of Books About Ancient Cultures. 86–106. Relationships between Middle Eastern patients and Western health care professionals are often troubled by mutual misunderstanding of culturally influenced values and communication styles. History of the Concepts, Health and Disease: II. 2. Cautery (kawī, kayy, makwa, ḥadīd) involves placing a heated metal object, usually a nail or a small rod much like a branding iron, on the patient's skin. 5. x���rܶ��_��#�؊$��d��I�$uS�$���탬�w������@��y7���3��YA@ T\km�����~Wx"�\'�ć�؋��j`��Ч�'�u-ϊ#'������ʓ�'N�Kh�IS�ixvYz���G��8�)O&f='H��'V��V�%+��:�����ɳ7��td�G����wc�@X7+��������������\��bG "Hegemony and Healing in Rural North Yemen." We believe that health issues impact on a wide range of economic and functional aspects of any economy which go way beyond the traditional view that health means hospitals. Your Middle East. The most widespread religion in the Middle East is Islam. Islam is the most widely followed religion in the Middle East. Furthermore, as Manfred Ullman (1978) has argued, many of the ḥadīth (sayings and traditions of the prophet Muḥammad), upon which prophetic medicine was supposedly based, were actually inauthentic, prescribing pre-Islamic folk practices that were later reinterpreted using concepts from yunāni medicine. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. On the one hand, belief in barakah and the abilities of barakah- bestowing dead saints to perform miraculous cures, including the restoration of fecundity to the infertile (Inhorn, 1994a), brings hope to those whose health problems seem intractable or who have failed to find relief in other therapeutic venues. ' Handbook on Muslim patients is a considerable intra-cultural diversity among Filipino Americans with regards to beliefs. 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middle eastern healthcare beliefs

Employing personnel trained in Europe, India, Pakistan, Middle Ea… Middle Eastern Americans, overall, share visible physical characteristics, history in the region as well as in the U.S., religious traditions, including Mizrahi and Sephardic Judaism, Eastern Christianity, and Islam, along with a rich cultural heritage of common values, sensibilities in art, food, music, epic stories, etc. ." The spread of Islam is closely linked with the history of the Middle East as the converts established some caliphates with their own laws based on Islamic law. Typically, ziyārāt to the mosque-tombs of blessed saints are journeys that women make alone, allowing them the opportunity to demonstrate their agency and independence. And how far gone is the issue of obesity across Middle Eastern countries? The Evil Eye. 271–297. Although pharaonic medicine and later yunāni medicine were extremely important literate medical traditions in this region of the world, this essay begins with a brief history of prophetic (Islamic) medicine, which arose during the period following the Prophet Muḥammad's death in 632 ce and which still represents an extremely influential healing tradition throughout the region. Amulets often consist of small pieces of paper, sometimes folded, upon which indecipherable formulas or religious verses have been inscribed by a shaikh bil-barakah or quasi-religious male healer. For this reason amulets often adorn the clothing of infants and young children. Anthropological Perspectives, Health and Disease: IV. Encyclopedia.com. Islam. In Egypt, for example, there are four major categories of traditional healers, including dāyāt (lay midwives), who deliver babies and provide many types of "ethnogynecological" care to lower-class women patients (Inhorn, 1994a); ʿaṭṭārīn (herbalists), who work with a rich ethnopharmacopeia of herbal and mineral substances and are often skilled ethnobotanists in their own right; munaggimīn (spiritist healers), who are known for specializing in diagnostic clairvoyance and the treatment of the more difficult, socially mediated causes of ill health (e.g., infertility, impotence), including angered spirits and the sorcery acts of enemies; and shuyūkh bil-baraka (blessed shaikh s), who are typically, but not necessarily, associated with Ṣūfī orders and who bestow their own inherited or acquired barakah on patients through faith healing (i.e., laying on of hands, reading of the Qurʾān, writing healing amulets with religious inscriptions, and praying over the afflicted). "Medical Pluralism in Arab and Egyptian History: An Overview of Class Structures and Philosophies of the Main Phases." These are some of the public health issues the region has to deal with today. Tapper, Nancy. Cautery is reportedly practiced in Morocco, Sudan, Yemen, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and among Palestinian Bedouins in Israel. Philosophical Perspectives, Health and Disease: V. The Experience of Health and Illness, Health and Human Services Department, United States, Health and Long-Term Care Program Integration. Indeed, it is women—not men—who are most actively involved in saint veneration and who are, therefore, the primary participants in the salvation-oriented ziyārāt to local and regional saints' tombs. According to a recent global study, the Middle Eastern region suffers from the highest rates of depression, anxiety disorders, PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder), and suicide. In the neighboring countries of the Arab Gulf and Levant (Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, Jordan), ḥukamā ʿarabi (Arabic doctors) may provide a variety of herbal, spiritual, and other physical remedies for difficult afflictions, such as male infertility and impotence, sometimes operating out of their own clinics and charging high prices for their services. There are several characteristics of culture impacting the interactions between Middle Eastern and Western peoples. In the early twenty-first century the zār is found primarily among the socially marginalized, who seek refuge in a healing fellowship with others who are similarly afflicted. Sociological Perspectives, Health and Disease: III. Relationships between Middle Eastern patients and Western health care professionals are often troubled by mutual misunderstanding of culturally influenced values and communication styles. Getting God's Ear: Women, Islam, and Healing in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf. Healers often provide special instructions on how the written amulet is to be utilized (e.g., in bath water, in drinking water, worn next to the body, slept on, stepped over, or burned with incense, which in and of itself is deemed protective against harmful forces). As Peter Gran (1979) points out, the Ṣūfī cults and their shrines flourished in countries such as Egypt because they catered to the spiritual, psychological, and political needs of the lower classes as well as to their medical complaints. Each section describes the staple foods, meal patterns, cooking techniques, and food-related customs and traditions. Filipino Americans who have been in the U.S for a long time are more acculturated to the American health system than those who recently migrated. Morsy, Soheir A. With rapidly growing economies linked to oil, tourism and the financial industry, countries in this area have a large population of expats from all around the world. https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/healing-and-medicine-popular-healing-practices-middle-eastern-cultures. Cults also offered medical specialization; for example, some dealt specifically with the ailments of women, whereas others specialized in psychiatric problems, which were usually attributed to spirit possession. There is a considerable intra-cultural diversity among Filipino Americans with regards to health beliefs and health … Myntti, Cynthia. Furthermore infertile women are considered to be dangerous to fertile women, especially those who are pregnant, who have demonstrated their reproductive success repeatedly, or who have finally achieved a coveted pregnancy through technological means such as in vitro fertilization. Health beliefs can have a profound impact on the clinical care of Asian patients in the United States, affecting the accuracy of health histories and compliance with treatment recommendations from Western providers. Inhorn, Marcia C. Local Babies, Global Science: Gender, Religion, and In Vitro Fertilization in Egypt. The Ḥamadsha: A Study of Moroccan Ethnopsychiatry. Betteridge, Anne H. "Muslim Women and Shrines in Shiraz." Encyclopedia of Religion. Rosenberg, Lior, Amiram Sagi, Nador Stahl, Baruch Greber, and Patrick Beni-Meir. Islam; Pilgrimage, article on Muslim Pilgrimage. New York, 2000. What effects might a civil war have on a population's mental health? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 8 (1974): 103–107. Choice and Ambiguity in Morocco's Pluralistic Medical System." Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps, Healing and Medicine: Popular Healing Practices in Middle Eastern Cultures. "Healing and Medicine: Popular Healing Practices in Middle Eastern Cultures HEALING Mind-body-spirit integration. From the early twentieth century until independence in 1960, the colony of Niger was part of French We…, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Tibet, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in the Ancient near East, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in the African Diaspora, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Judaism, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Japan, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Islamic Texts and Traditions, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Indigenous Australia, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Greece and Rome, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Christianity, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in China, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Āyurveda and South Asia, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Africa, Healing and Medicine: Alternative Medicine in the New Age, Healing and the Arts in Afro-Caribbean Cultures, Health and Disease: I. Betteridge, Anne H. "Specialists in Miraculous Action: Some Shrines in Shiraz." In South Asia, for example, Pashtuns, Punjabis, Sindhis, Hazaras, Tajiks, and other groups are in constant conflict. In the modern era, … Walker, John. In Sacred Journeys: The Anthropology of Pilgrimage, edited by Alan Morinis, pp. Health Care Providers' Handbook on Muslim Patients is a 22-page document prepared by Queensland Health in Australia. Philadelphia, 1996. As with cupping and cautery, the use of prophylactic and curative amulets dates to pre-Islamic Arabic folk medicine; however, the use of amulets was not denounced by the prophet Muḥammad and was eventually incorporated into prophetic medicine. As any visitor to a souk anywhere in the Middle East will see, Western, allopathic medicine exists alongside a continuing belief in traditional medical practices, such as herbalism, in a synthesis that precedes the contemporary West's interest in integrating scientific and complementary systems of … In the Middle East in the early twenty-first century, opposition to popular healing rituals does not come mainly from biomedical quarters. Social Science and Medicine 28 (1989): 381–388. London, 1990. El Messiri Nadim, Nawal. Social Science and Medicine 58 (2004): 697–702. A key principle shared by many Asian cultures is a holistic view of health, with an emphasis on balance and harmony between the individual’s mind, body, and environment (Trinh- Shevrin, 2009). . Last updated: 8 December, 2013. Harmony with natural environment (e.g., animals, plants, sky, and earth) is important for health. RELIGION: Islam; Chr…, Islam If Bahaism is the baby of the Middle East, then Zoroastrianism is the granddad of the group. 5 health threats facing the Middle East. 7. Today, the terms Eastern medicine and Asian medicine are more commonly used in this country, and perhaps they are the better terms. Cupping (kasr or kaʾsāt hawāʾ ) involves two objects—one to be lit (usually a piece of cloth dipped in a flammable liquid, a candle, or a corncob), and one to be used as a sort of suction cup (usually a glass jar, a pottery vessel, a mortar, or a cup). If you’re interested in this area of the world, you’ll want to know the heads of state in the region, acronyms people use in the Middle East, and some basic Islamic terms, because many — although by no means most — of the world’s Muslims reside here. Materials and Methods The aim of this research was to identify and summarize the research conducted to date on the topic of spirituality and health within a Middle Eastern … Second, given these beliefs concerning child health, it is not surprising that women—and particularly reproductively troubled women incapable of fulfilling their motherhood expectations and desires—are deemed particularly likely to cast the evil eye on children for the simple reason that women deprived of children cannot help but to envy them. Strong religion beliefs often govern family life and their way of life. Most of these shrines contain the tombs of dead saints, and some, especially the relatively famous ones, host magnificent mosque-tomb complexes. •During illness or crisis, Middle Eastern rely heavily on their “in-group” instead of trying to cope more individually as many Americans would. The Mediterranean diet has garnered praise for its role in keeping the body healthy and staving … For most Middle Eastern Muslims, it is a personal and professional third rail to call for the removal of religion from public life, let alone to call into question God’s existence. •People close to patient consider it a duty to be there. Rural Health Care in Egypt. Born in the heart of Persia over 3,000 years ago, Zoroastrianism is one of the world’s oldest monotheistic religions. Journal of Men's Studies 10 (2002): 343–359. Mental health conditions in the Middle East. Muslim Travellers: Pilgrimage, Migration, and the Religious Imagination. The Middle Eastern Health Inequality Paradox and the Gender Obesity Gap (2018) The Middle Eastern diet falls under the category of a Mediterranean diet, which incorporates the foods and cuisines of the countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. New York, 1976. Books about Egypt and Sumer. Thousands of Muslim pilgrims make ziyārāt, or visits, to saints' shrines, some large, some small, dotting the urban and rural landscapes of countries like Morocco, Tunisia, and Egypt but also in Middle Eastern countries outside the Arab world, including Turkey and Iran. Such healing furthermore may be multifaceted. In Egypt, for example, a class of spiritist healers known as munaggimīn, who may be either male or female, specialize in diagnostic clairvoyance and the treatment of angered spirits. Although pharaonic medicine and later yunāni medicine were extremely important literate medical traditions in this region of the world, this essay begins with a brief history of prophetic (Islamic) medicine, which arose during the period following the Prophet Muḥammad's death in 632 ce and which still represents an extremely influential healing tradition throughout the region. https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/healing-and-medicine-popular-healing-practices-middle-eastern-cultures, "Healing and Medicine: Popular Healing Practices in Middle Eastern Cultures Countries of the Middle East – a link to a list of 11 countries. Historically prophetic me… Philadelphia, 1994a. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Bakker, Jogien. 12 Jan. 2021 . Encyclopedia of Religion. Austin, Tex., 1976. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. "The Rise of Female Healers in the Middle Atlas, Morocco." Many of these records provide an exquisitely detailed account of the medical systems and accompanying ideologies that gained hegemony in this region through the millennia, as well as the cultural and socioeconomic milieus in which they existed (Gran, 1979; Inhorn Millar and Lane, 1988). Wearing a hand of Fatima as a piece of jewelry is thought to prevent human harm and illness. About 20% of the world's Muslims live in the Middle East. First, children—and particularly more highly valued male children—are believed to be one of the main targets of the evil eye, with their sickness, injury, and even death constituting possible outcomes. So are attempts by the Saudis to reheat divisions between Sunnis and Shia. While each of the many countries commonly considered part of the "Middle East" is unique, there is a binding ethnic fabric that should be considered. People may feel worried, low, worthless, and frequently sad. In this belief, anything that provokes jealousy in another gives the jealous person the power to cause illness or misfortune for the lucky person or family. Religion in the cultures of the Middle East. In addition, the activities of the pilgrimage itself—including the respite from everyday routine; the exhilaration of travel to a spiritually "magnetic" center (Preston, 1992); the cathartic effects of unburdening one's "private heartaches" (Tapper, 1990) on a nonjudgmental but responsive holy one who can be requested to act on one's behalf; the ability to be part of a sympathetic, experienced community of female sufferers who often congregate at these shrines (Mernissi, 1977); and the ministrations of the living, barakah -bestowing shaikh s who often attend to these shrines and who pray and write healing amulets for suffering pilgrims—are part and parcel of the healing process. Technologies such as coronary bypass surgery, organ transplantation services, and the latest forms of in vitro fertilization are widely available in urban centers. Healing and Medicine: Popular Healing Practices in Middle Eastern Cultures There is a considerable intra-cultural diversity among Filipino Americans with regards to health beliefs and health practices. They have had an enduring influence on Western civilization. For example, many countries in the Middle East still have arranged marriages and require that women cover their head and/or face to … Upper Saddle River, N.J., 1998. Medical professionals need a more informed understanding and consideration of the rich and diverse array of beliefs, expectations, preferences, and behavioral makeup of the social cultures of these patients to ensure that they are providing the best and most comprehensive care possible. Gender, Sickness, and Healing in Rural Egypt: Ethnography in Historical Context. Cautery may be used directly on the site of a patient's bodily complaint (e.g., lower back, arm or leg joints), or it may be used on other sites of the body to "tighten" relaxed nerves and muscles. That population is at an increased risk for several diseases and faces many barriers to accessing the American health care system. How This Impacts Care •Patient brings 1 or 2 additional people to visit who listen carefully for patient and may answer for patient. Doumato, Eleanor Abdella. The "evil of an envier" is mentioned directly in the Qurʾān, but the belief in evil eye predates Islam, appearing in both the Bible and in Sumerian texts as early as five thousand years ago (Dundes, 1992). Misconception of Middle Eastern Culture and Religion | Melika Rahmani | TEDxJMU Melika is a student at James Madison University. Section 2 addresses Islamic beliefs affecting healthcare. The forms that the fertility rites assumed varied from region to region, depending on climate and geography. Gellner, Ernest. 84 0 obj Middle East's Muslim population accounts for roughly 20% of the world's Muslim population. Crapanzano, Vincent. Inhorn Millar, Marcia C., and Sandra D. Lane. "Spiritual Magnetism: An Organizing Principle for the Study of Pilgrimage." The Middle Eastern diet falls under the category of a Mediterranean diet, which incorporates the foods and cuisines of the countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Thus middle- to upper-class Middle Eastern patients can avail themselves of medical diagnosis and treatment services in cities such as Jiddah, Saudi Arabia; Cairo, Egypt; Tehran, Iran; or Beirut, Lebanon, with expectations that the services rendered will be on a par with those offered in the best medical centers in the West. Health Disparities: The Case of Arab/Middle Eastern Immigrants in The United States. quently, the number who seek health care has also been increasing. In the early twenty-first century, amulets are widely used throughout the Middle East for three primary purposes: (1) to prevent the deleterious envy (evil eye) that can destroy objects and lead to illness; (2) to nullify acts of sorcery, which are also thought to cause illnesses such as impotence; and (3) on a more mundane level, to treat physical complaints, ranging from headaches to fever. Pillsbury, Barbara L. K. Traditional Health Care in the Near East. Although some contemporary Islamists are calling for a return to prophetic-Islamic medicine—with its promotion of dietary and lifestyle changes as well as faith healing through prayer, writing of religious amulets, laying on of hands, and recitation of holy verses from the Qurʾān (Adib, 2004)—it is important to remember that these are among the very practices that have been employed for centuries in popular healing rituals throughout the region. Encyclopedia.com. By the sixteenth-century, cults of popular Islamic mystics, known as Ṣūfīs or marabouts, began to proliferate in the countries of North Africa. Middle Eastern Christians are relatively wealthy, well educated, and politically moderate, as they have today an active role in various social, economical, sporting and political aspects in the Middle East. Bearing this medical modernity in mind, it is also important to acknowledge that popular healing traditions still exist in the Middle East, providing a less expensive alternative to biomedicine among rural populations and the urban underclass, as well as a spiritual connection to Islam and to earlier literate medical traditions in the region. "Perceiving Systems: Cold or Spirits? In 1998, the World Mental Health Survey Initiative was conducted by the World Federation for Mental Health.The (WFMH) was originally created in 1948 and works in concert with the World Health Organization (WHO). Eickelman, Dale F., and James Piscatori, eds. The practices of cupping and cautery were the most common healing methods employed in pre-Islamic times, according to medical historians (Ullman, 1978). Boulder, Colo., 1993. 1. Health beliefs and views of death predate European immigration and vary by tribe. Research indicates that close to 94% of Middle East's population belonged to Islam. Several poems inspired by the ancient legends from the Middle East. "Women, Sufism, and Decision-Making in Moroccan Islam." However, with the coming of Islam to the region, the prophet Muḥammad is said to have forbidden cauterization as a pre-Islamic, Bedouin practice of heathen origin (Doumato, 2000; Ullman, 1978). Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. "Ethno-Ophthalmology in the Egyptian Delta: An Historical Systems Approach to Ethnomedicine in the Middle East." Family and friends should not be used to provide interpretation services (except on request by the patient/consumer). It is these popular healing traditions and their connection to Islam that represent the substance of this brief essay. About 20% of the world's Muslims live in the Middle East. 3d ed. The initial portion of the document provides guidelines for health services to Muslims. London, 1969. Furthermore beliefs in harmful spirits and spirit possession are found across the Middle Eastern region, from Morocco to Iran. To accurately evaluate and understand the mental health issues of the Middle East, one must take into account the geographic, historical, cultural, and social influences of that part of the world. In Sacred Journeys: The Anthropology of Pilgrimage, edited by Alan Morinis, pp. ••• Westport, Conn., 1992. Social Science and Medicine 39 (1994b): 487–505. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Boulder, Colo., 1993. Culture Name Health care organizations must make available easily understood Women who are reproductively troubled and who may be blamed for the evil eye seek refuge in the zār cult in some parts of the Middle East. Healing, both new and old, is clearly a rich area for future scholarship, as suggested by the brief examples provided in this essay. Identifying them can be time consuming for the busy clinician. Family is extremely important to Middle Eastern cultures and usually extends to aunts, uncles, cousins, etc. Instructions. When Mid-Easterners visit healthcare professionals for pain relief, they expect to be treated right away and given medications at the same visit. Neither domain has been well studied by social scientists or historians. ... cultural health beliefs and practices and preferred language. RELIGION: Culture Awareness in Maternity: Middle Eastern Cultures Conception Postpartum Postpartum BREASTFEEDING Clinical Implications SOURCES: Many Middle Eastern Countries practice Islam Researching Middle Eastern practices is actually a look into Islamic Religion and Culture Identification. For the masses of rural and urban poor people who visit these sites as pilgrims—given that healing pilgrimage of this sort tends to be a class-based phenomenon in the Middle East these dead saints are believed to radiate barakah, a living form of beneficial power associated with divine blessing, grace, or holiness that is transferable to their descendants, followers, and visitors (Biegman, 1990). View Academics in Middle Eastern Health Care Beliefs on Academia.edu. Social Science and Medicine 15B (1981): 219–235. The majority of people that make up the Middle East are we Arab Muslims who together share certain values, traditions, and old beliefs that are remarkably different from those of Westerners. The Middle Eastern Health Inequality Paradox and the Gender Obesity Gap (2018) ALNohair, S. (2014) Obesity in Gulf Countries. Middle Eastern religion, any of the religious beliefs, attitudes, and practices developed in the ancient Middle East (extending geographically from Iran to Egypt and from Anatolia and the Aegean Sea to the Arabian Peninsula and temporally from about 3000 to 330 bc, when Alexander the Great conquered much of the area). Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Social Science and Medicine 13B (1979): 339–348. After the Prophet's death, Muslim believers, such as Al-Suyūṭī in his Tibb-ul-Nabbi (Medicine of the Prophet), collected everything the Prophet was reported to have said about hygiene, alcohol consumption, circumcision, menstruation, breast-feeding, sanitation, and various diseases and then institutionalized these sayings into a form of medical practice (Gran, 1979). Middle Eastern culture is very broad since it not only includes countries in Asia but also in Africa. Berkeley, Calif., 1990. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 82 (1988): 277–280. Despite this prophetic denouncement, both cupping and cautery are found widely throughout the Middle Eastern region in the early twenty-first century. Middle Eastern Christians are relatively wealthy, well educated, and politically moderate, as they have today an active role in various social, economical, sporting and political aspects in the Middle East. Thus, in many settings in the Middle East, belief in the evil eye serves as a primary explanatory model for infant and child morbidity and mortality (Harfouche, 1992). It arose as a formal discipline in the wake o…, PRONUNCIATION: soo-duh-NEEZ They do so either as "possessed" individuals, who use their own spirits to diagnose and treat other spirit-troubled individuals, or as skillful agents of spirit invocation, who make the wishes of others' spirits known, then appease those spirits through communal zār rituals or private rituals of animal sacrifice and the provision of gifts to the spirit world. Despite widespread Western misconceptions about technological "backwardness" in the Middle Eastern world, the Middle East is home to thoroughly modern, high-tech, Western-based biomedicine, often delivered in gleaming private hospitals and medical centers throughout the region. Boddy, Janice. Even though most of the inhabitants are Muslims, some practice Christianity. Given the incredible diversity of the region, the Middle East is home to a rich armamentarium of popular healing practices delivered by multiple types of healers. In other words, religion can be a protective factor against suicide. Islamic religious leaders and groups are increasingly spreading the word that popular healing practices, especially those that involve saint worship, are a form of shirk, or polytheism, which is ḥaram, or forbidden in the religion. Early, Evelyn A. Baladi Women of Cairo: Playing with an Egg and a Stone. Preston, James J. Islamic Medicine. . Signs 3 (1977): 101–112. "Ziyaret : Gender, Movement, and Exchange in a Turkish Community." Indeed zār has been described by some scholars as a proto-feminist challenge to women's objectification and subordination (Boddy, 1989), a way to challenge authority and compensate for exclusion from formal religion in the Muslim world (Doumato, 2000). Belief in the power of the envious glance to cause harm is widespread throughout the Middle East, a region considered one of the "core areas" where evil eye beliefs are found (although they are also found in other parts of the world) (Dundes, 1992; Maloney, 1976). When the vessel is placed over the flame, it extinguishes the flame and causes vapor to rise. 31–46. 4. Through the zār they find a social etiology for their suffering (i.e., harmful spirits), a sense of community solidarity with other similarly afflicted women, and a way to press for demands (e.g., new clothing, jewelry, feasts) through the idiom of spirit possession and the invocation of these spirits through joyful music and dance. Safa, Kaveh. Inhorn, Marcia C. Quest for Conception: Gender, Infertility, and Egyptian Medical Traditions. Berkeley, Calif., 1973. Reviews of Books About Ancient Cultures. 86–106. Relationships between Middle Eastern patients and Western health care professionals are often troubled by mutual misunderstanding of culturally influenced values and communication styles. History of the Concepts, Health and Disease: II. 2. Cautery (kawī, kayy, makwa, ḥadīd) involves placing a heated metal object, usually a nail or a small rod much like a branding iron, on the patient's skin. 5. x���rܶ��_��#�؊$��d��I�$uS�$���탬�w������@��y7���3��YA@ T\km�����~Wx"�\'�ć�؋��j`��Ч�'�u-ϊ#'������ʓ�'N�Kh�IS�ixvYz���G��8�)O&f='H��'V��V�%+��:�����ɳ7��td�G����wc�@X7+��������������\��bG "Hegemony and Healing in Rural North Yemen." We believe that health issues impact on a wide range of economic and functional aspects of any economy which go way beyond the traditional view that health means hospitals. Your Middle East. The most widespread religion in the Middle East is Islam. Islam is the most widely followed religion in the Middle East. Furthermore, as Manfred Ullman (1978) has argued, many of the ḥadīth (sayings and traditions of the prophet Muḥammad), upon which prophetic medicine was supposedly based, were actually inauthentic, prescribing pre-Islamic folk practices that were later reinterpreted using concepts from yunāni medicine. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. On the one hand, belief in barakah and the abilities of barakah- bestowing dead saints to perform miraculous cures, including the restoration of fecundity to the infertile (Inhorn, 1994a), brings hope to those whose health problems seem intractable or who have failed to find relief in other therapeutic venues. ' Handbook on Muslim patients is a considerable intra-cultural diversity among Filipino Americans with regards to beliefs. 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